On this day in AD 70 the siege of Jerusalem ended with the destruction of the Second Temple by Titus, son of Vespasian, at the head of a Roman army.
According to the historian Josephus the Menorah of the temple was taken as spoils of war and brought back to Rome. It was carried in the Triumphal Procession of Vespasian and Titus and is recorded on the Arch of Titus.
Using the spoils taken from Jerusalem Vespasian constructed the Templum Pacis, the temple of peace in the Forum of Vespasian. The Menorah was stored in the temple for hundreds of years until the sack of Rome by the Vandals in 455 AD.
The Vandals brought the Menorah back with them to their capital in Carthage, in the Roman African province, modern day Tunisia.
One hundred years later the Vandals had become soft from living on the fat of the land. Their armies were no longer the terror of the western Mediterranean. Emperor Justinian of the Eastern Roman Empire sent his favourite general, Belisarius, to retake Africa for Rome. In 533 AD Belisarius defeated the armies of King Gelimer and his brothers.
According to the historian Procopius the Menorah was found amongst the treasures of the Vandals and was taken to Constantinople. It was displayed in the Ovation given by Justinian to his victorious general. Gelimer was prostrated before the Emperor, and was allowed to live out his life on a Roman estate.
According to Procopius Justinian gave the Menorah back to the Jews in Jerusalem. On the one hand it is hard to believe that such an ardent Christian emperor would have given this treasure to people he regarded as little short of heretics. On the other hand he may have looked at the fate of the Second Temple, Rome and Carthage and wondered if he really wanted to keep the Menorah in his capital.
Whatever the truth this is the end of the tale for the Menorah. It is never seen again. Some say it is hidden in the Vatican City and the Vandals never found it. Others say it was looted from Jerusalem when the Persians sacked the city in 614 AD. Some think it was in a ship that sank in the Tibur when the Vandals were leaving Rome and that it lies at the bottom of the sea outside Ostia. Others think it was still in Jerusalem during the Crusades and was taken by the Knights Templar. Whatever the truth it is a tempting theme for a “Da Vinci Code” style adventure, or a new quest for Indiana Jones.
Psalm III : by Allen Ginsberg
To God: to illuminate all men. Beginning with Skid Road.
Let Occidental and Washington be transformed into a higher place, the plaza of eternity.
Illuminate the welders in shipyards with the brilliance of their torches.
Let the crane operator lift up his arm for joy.
Let elevators creak and speak, ascending and descending in awe.
Let the mercy of the flower’s direction beckon in the eye.
Let the straight flower bespeak its purpose in straightness — to seek the light.
Let the crooked flower bespeak its purpose in crookedness — to seek the light.
Let the crookedness and straightness bespeak the light.
Let Puget Sound be a blast of light.
I feed on your Name like a cockroach on a crumb — this cockroach is holy.