Since today is USA Thanksgiving it is a good time to talk about Turkeys, their origin, their names and their use in language.
The Turkey had a strange introduction to the English language. The Mexican turkey was domesticated by the Aztecs. When the Spanish Conquistadors arrived in the New World they found a new type of domestic fowl.
To them it looked something like a peacock, so they gave it the Spanish word for the same: Pavo. The Peacock is now called the Pavo Real in Spanish, or the Royal Fowl.
When the Spanish brought the Turkey back from Mexico it spread rapidly across North Africa to the Ottoman Empire. The Turks named the bird a “Hindi” or an Indian Fowl, because they then believed the New World was part of the Indian sub-continent. Hence we call the islands of the Caribbean the West Indies.
The French who purchased the bird from the Turks adapted the name “Hindi” to French. They called it Volaille d’Inde (The Indian Fowl) which was shortened over time to Dindon.
The English called traders with the Ottoman Empire “Turkey Traders”. When this new bird arrived they called it the Cock or Hen of Turkey. So we get the name Turkey as a bird.
When English colonists set off to Virginia Colony and New England they included domesticated Turkeys in their compliment of farm birds. When they arrived in the New World they were surprised to see a wild bird species remarkably similar to the fowl they believed came from Turkey.
The North American wild turkey ( Meleagris gallopavo silvestris) has not been domesticated, and is a different sub-species to the Aztec domestic turkey.
To ‘Talk Turkey’ is a synonym for talking real business. It appears to originate in a joke where a white man suggests to a red indian that they share the spoils of their hunting as follows: ‘I can take the Turkey and you can take the crow, or you can take the crow and I can take the Turkey’ to which the Indian replies ‘you no talk turkey to me”.
To go “Cold Turkey” means to give up a habit or an addiction completely. The phrase comes from the fact that drug or alcohol addicts to completely cease using can get cold clammy sweats and goosebumps on their skin, so their flesh looks like refrigerated Turkey.
A Turkey Shoot is a situation where a person or group has an unfair advantage over others. In business it is a situation where unexpected demand creates an environment for supernormal profits and frequently arises in disaster situations or in times of war. If you have the product the consumers will pay through the nose for it. In military situations a classic case of a turkey shoot was the Battle of the Crater in Petersburg, when union soldiers ran into the crater created by the detonation of a huge mine. The sides were too steep for them to exit the hole and the Confederate troops were able to shoot down on them with ease from the rim of the crater.
The origin of the term ‘turkey shoot’ is uncertain. Many rifle clubs in the USA hold pre-thanksgiving turkey shoots where the prizes are frozen turkeys. What characterizes these competitions is that skill is replaced by luck. Most of them involve blasting a target at short range with a shotgun. Older versions involved shooting rifles at staked live turkeys, requiring slightly more, but not a huge amount of skill.